From 2011-2017, images and videos of "The Root Canal Anatomy Project" were developed at the Laboratory of Endodontics of Ribeirao Preto Dental School - University of Sao Paulo - under supervision of Dr Manoel Sousa Neto. From 2016, images were acquired in other educational institutions. They can be freely used for attributed noncommercial educational purposes by educators, scholars, student and clinicians. It means that all material used should include proper attribution and citation ( In such cases, this information should be linked to the image in a manner compatible with such instructional objectives. Unfortunately, because material shared on the RCAP has not been properly cited by several users, from November 2019 a watermark was added to the images and videos. Enjoy!

March 20, 2014

Publication IEJ


Aim: To assess the percentage volume of filling materials and voids in oval-shaped canals filled with either cold lateral condensation or warm compaction techniques, using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). 

Methodology: Twenty-four single-rooted maxillary premolar teeth with oval-shaped canals were selected, the root canals prepared, and assigned to 2 groups (n=12), according to the filling technique: cold lateral compaction (CLC) or warm vertical compaction (WVC). Each specimen was scanned using a micro-CT device at an isotropic resolution of 12.5 μm. Percentage volume of root filling materials and voids were calculated, and data were statistically analyzed using Student t-test and Friedman's test, with a significance level of 5%. 

Results: Overall, mean percentage volume of gutta-percha, sealer and voids were 82.33 ± 3.14, 13.42 ± 2.91, and 4.26 ± 0.74, respectively, in the CLC group, and 91.73 ± 4.48, 7.70 ± 4.44, and 0.57 ± 0.44, respectively, in WVC group, with statistical significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). At the apical level, differences in the percentage volume of filling materials and voids between groups were not significant (p > 0.05). No root fillings were void-free. 

Conclusions: Warm vertical compaction produced a significantly greater volume of gutta-percha and a significantly lower percentage of voids than those achieved with cold lateral compaction. Distribution of sealer and voids within the root canal space after root filling procedure was unpredictable, irrespective of the root filling method.

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