The images and videos of "The Root Canal Anatomy Project" blog were developed at the Laboratory of Endodontics of Ribeirao Preto Dental School - University of Sao Paulo - and may be freely used for attributed noncommercial educational purposes by educators, scholars, student and clinicians. It means that all material used should include proper attribution and citation ( In such cases, this information should be linked to the image in a manner compatible with such instructional objectives. Enjoy!

September 28, 2013

Why does mandibular incisor fail?

Usually, teeth with single roots present single canals as in mandibular and maxillary anterior teeth. However, particular tooth types, such as mandibular premolars and incisors, are recognized as exhibiting a distinct range of variations in the morphology of their root canal system. In mandibular incisors, often a dentinal bridge is present in the pulp chamber dividing the root into two canals. The two canals usually join and exit through a single apical foramen, but they may persist as two separate canals. On occasion one canal branches into two canals, which subsequently rejoin into a single canal before reaching the apex. The incidence of two canals in mandibular incisors has been reported to be as low as 0.3% and as high as 45.3%. The wide range of variation reported in the literature regarding the prevalence of a second canal in mandibular incisors has been mostly related to methodological and racial differences.
(Very soon on the Journal of Endodontics)