From 2011-2016, images and videos of "The Root Canal Anatomy Project" were developed at the Laboratory of Endodontics of Ribeirao Preto Dental School. From 2016, images were acquired in other educational institutions. They can be freely used for attributed noncommercial educational purposes by educators, scholars, student and clinicians. It means that all material used should include proper attribution and citation ( In such cases, this information should be linked to the image in a manner compatible with such instructional objectives. Unfortunately, because material shared on the RCAP has not been properly cited by several users, from November 2019 a watermark was added to the images and videos. Enjoy!

March 3, 2023

Mandibular First Molar

Root Canal Anatomy Project 

Merging Science & Art

Realistic 3D model obtained by micro-CT technology and characterized by using advanced computer design techniques. Watch in HD!

March 2, 2023

Double Maxillary Molar


Root Canal Anatomy Project
Merging Science & Art

Realistic 3D model obtained by micro-CT technology and characterized by using advanced computer design techniques. Watch in HD!

Double Maxillary Molar Teeth

Conjoined teeth, a rare dental anomaly, have been described using various terms including gemination, fusion, double teeth, and twinning. Gemination refers to an attempted division of a single tooth germ, resulting in a tooth with a doubled crown and a single root. Fusion, on the other hand, occurs when two separate tooth germs fuse together, leading to a tooth with a larger crown and two distinct roots. In some cases, it can be challenging to distinguish between the two conditions, which is why some authors prefer to use the term "double teeth" for both. This condition usually affects anterior teeth, but it can also occur in premolars and permanent molars, albeit rarely. In 1963, Tannenbaum and Alling defined gemination as the formation of two teeth from a single follicle, with evidence of an attempt to keep them separate. Pindborg's definition of fusion involves the union of two or more separate developing teeth, which can result in either complete (total/true fusion) or incomplete (partial/late fusion) fusion, depending on the stage of tooth development. Overall, conjoined teeth can present diagnostic challenges, and proper identification and classification are important for appropriate management and treatment.


Pindborg JJ. Pathology of the dental hard tissues. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1970.
Tannenbaum KA, Alling EE. Anomalous tooth development: case report of gemination and twinning. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1963;16:883-8.
Versiani, M.A., Martins, J.N. & Basrani, B. (2018). 3D visual glossary of terminology in root and root canal anatomy. In M. A. Versiani, B. Basrani & M. D. Sousa Neto (Eds.), The Root Canal Anatomy in Permanent Dentition (1 ed., pp. 391-422). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

December 21, 2022

Endo Meeting in Lebanon


The Lebanon Endodontic Society invited me to be in Beirut next March to discuss some aspects related to the influence of the root canal anatomy on endodontic procedures

December 20, 2022

Endo Meeting in Israel

One of the places that I've always dreamt about to go in this lifetime is Israel. And this will happen soon thanks to Dr Joe Ben Itzhak and all members of the Israel Endodontic Society. Thanks a lot for the invitation.

August 20, 2022

Maxillary First Molar - Deep Split

 A deep split of the mesiobuccal root canal in a maxillary first molar
A technical challenge for any endodontist!
Detail of the palatal canal with an apical curvature towards buccal

August 19, 2022

Maxillary First Molar - Type II Configuration

Maxillary Molar Micro-CT Marco Versiani

The most common root canal system configuration of a maxillary first molar: 1 palatal, 1 distobuccal and 2 mesiobuccal (MB1 and MB2 canals with Vertucci's Type II configuration root canals. Photorealistic texture of a 3D model acquired using micro-CT technology and performed with advanced computational tools.

August 18, 2022

ESE Meeting in Budapest

European Society of Endodontology
Congress Course
Day: Thursday, 8th September 2022 (09h45-10h30) Hall 2
The skill of translating knowledge of canal anatomy into daily practice

European Society of Endodontology
Pre-Congress Course
Day: Wednesday, 7th September 2022 (14h00-17h00)
PCC4 - Morphometric analysis of the root canal system using micro-CT: a practical approach on how to perform measurements

March 17, 2022

The Worldwide Studies

The Worldwide Studies

The Worldwide Studies are an ongoing project under the supervision of Dr Jorge Martins (Portugal) on the evaluation of root canal anatomy using CBCT technology. It counts with the collaboration of researchers and clinicians from several countries with the aim to unveil the anatomical variations and the most prevalent canal configurations of thousands of teeth according to gender, geographic location and ethnic group. Right now there are 4 published studies and I had the opportunity to work in some of them. In 2022, a new phase from this project has started with the aim to publish at least 3 additional papers with the collaboration of people from 49 countries! A great achievement for our specialty. You can read the already published studies by clicking on the images below:

1. Worldwide Prevalence of Mandibular Second Molar C-Shaped Morphologies Evaluated by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

November 8, 2020

Radix Entomolarix (Mandibular Molar)

Root Canal Anatomy Project Merging Art & Science
Three-dimensional microCT-based root canal model of a mandibular second molar with radix entomolaris using advanced computacional design tools