The images and videos of "The Root Canal Anatomy Project" blog were developed at the Laboratory of Endodontics of Ribeirao Preto Dental School - University of Sao Paulo - and may be freely used for attributed noncommercial educational purposes by educators, scholars, student and clinicians. It means that all material used should include proper attribution and citation ( In such cases, this information should be linked to the image in a manner compatible with such instructional objectives. Enjoy!

November 12, 2015

Book Chapter: The Root Canal Biofilm

Very honored for being invited by Dr Luis E. Chávez de Paz, Dr. Christine M. Sedgley and Dr. Anil Kishen to write the chapter entitled "Root Canal Anatomy: Implications in Biofilm Disinfection" (pages 155-187) with Dr. Ronald Ordinola-Zapata in their new book "The Root Canal Biofilm". For more information, please click HERE.

November 8, 2015

Publication: Middle Mesial Canal

Middle mesial canals in mandibular first molars: 
a micro-CT study in different populations

Marco Aurélio Versiani, Ronald Ordinola-Zapata, Ali Keleş, Hatice Alcin, 
Clóvis Monteiro Bramante, Jesus Djalma Pécora, Manoel Damião Sousa-Neto

To describe the morphological aspects of middle mesial canals (MMC) in mandibular first molars using micro-CT.

Mandibular first molars collected from the Brazilian (n=136) and Turkish (n=122) populations were scanned (voxel size: 9.9 μm) and mesial roots with MMC (n=48) evaluated regarding several morphological aspects. The incidence of MMC in each population was statistically compared using Chi-square test (α=0.05).

Overall, the incidence of MMC was 18.6% (48 out of 258 molars) and was significantly higher in the Brazilian (n=30; 22.1%) than in the Turkish (n=18; 14.8%) population (p<0.05). In both populations, confluent configuration of the MMC was the most frequent anatomy. Most of the specimens with MMC had 3 independent orifices (n=26; 54.2%) and 3 apical foramina (n=21; 43.8%). The mean minor diameter of the MMC orifice (0.16 mm) was 3 times less than the other orifices (∼0.50 mm). In mesial roots with independent configuration (n=3; 6.3%), the mean volumes (mm3) of the MMC, mesiobuccal (MBC) and mesiolingual (MLC) canals were 0.20±0.10, 0.75±0.28, and 0.88±0.19, respectively. In the specimens with canal confluence (n=26; 54.2%), MMC merged to the MBC (n=8; 16.7%), MLC (n=4; 8.3%), or to both MBC and MLC (n=14; 29.2%). Double mesial canal was observed in only 1 specimen. MMC with an independent foramen was observed mostly in Brazilian specimens.

Incidence of MMC was higher in the Brazilian molars. Confluent configuration was the most revalent anatomic variation, while independent and fin configurations, as well as, double MMC, were found only in a few specimens.

mandibular molar; middle mesial canal; micro-CT; root canal anatomy

Click HERE or HERE to read and download the article in full

November 5, 2015

Publication: International Endodontic Journal

Micro-CT evaluation of the efficacy of hard tissue removal from the root canal and isthmus area by positive and negative pressure irrigation systems

M. A. Versiani, F. R. F. Alves, C. V. Andrade-Junior, M. F. Marceliano-Alves, J. C. Provenzano, I.N.Rocas, M. D. Sousa-Neto & J. F. Siqueira Jr

October 31, 2015

Two-Rooted Maxillary Central Incisor

A review of literature reveals that the anatomy of maxillary central incisors is single-rooted teeth with a single canal in 100% of cases. The prevalence of maxillary central incisors with 2 roots is extremely rare and has never been investigated; only a few clinical case reports have been published (Levin et al. 2015). 

Below there is a similar case report from Levin et al. published in the Journal of Endodontics
This article can be read in full HERE

October 30, 2015

Three-Rooted Maxillary Premolar

The following outstanding clinical case was performed by 
Dr. Konstantinos Kalogeropoulos 
and posted in the Facebook page 'Athens Endo'

Below, the anatomy of a similar three-rooted maxillary premolar is detailed