Prof. Dr. Manoel D. Sousa Neto (supervisor)
Prof. Dr. Jesus Djalma Pécora
Prof. Dr. Gustavo De Deus
Prof. Dr. Antônio Miranda da Cruz Filho
Prof. Dr. Antônio Paulino Ribeiro Sobrinho
The purpose of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the biomechanical preparation and obturation of root canals using ProTaper, WaveOne, Reciproc and Self-Adjusting File systems. It was evaluated: 1) area, perimeter, roundness, major diameter, minor diameter, surface area, volume and SMI after biomechanical preparation, using microcomputed tomography (μTC), 2) percentage volume of voids in the obturation material by means of μTC, 3) bond strength (BS) and type of failure after the push-out test, and 4) the analysis of the interface dentin / filling material using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One-hundred human mandibular canines were scanned in the SkyScan 1174v.2 device. After preparing the coronal third of the canals, the teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=25), according to the biomechanical preparation system used: ProTaper, WaveOne, Reciproc, and Self-Adjusting File (SAF). After the second μTC, eigthteen specimens of each group were assigned to two groups (n=9), according to the obturation technique: the Modified Continuous Wave of Condensation Technique and the technique recommended by the manufacturer. The remaining seven specimens of each group were used as negative and positive controls. After scanning, the obturated specimens were sectioned perpendicularly to its long axis into 1-mm slice thickness of the coronal, middle and apical thirds. The bond strength (BS) was performed by the push-out test and, after dislodgments, the failures were observed in a digital microscope. The specimens were processed for SEM analysis to observe bonding interface formation and resin tag density using a four-step scale method. Overall, the analysis of the biomechanical parameters showed that the most significant changes in the root canal occurred in the ProTaper group and WaveOne groups. Reciproc results were in an intermediate level and smaller changes were observed in the SAF group (ANOVA, p<0.05). In the coronal third, the Modified Continuous Wave of Condensation Technique showed a lower percentage volume of voids than the technique recommended by the manufacturer (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05). After the push-out test, the analysis indicated the mean BS (MPa) was significantly higher in specimens filled by the manufacturer's technical than the Modified Continuous Wave of Condensation Technique (t test for independent samples, p<0.05). The adhesive failures were frequent in all groups. The Modified Continuous Wave of Condensation Technique showed the highest percentage of adhesive failure in dentin while in the technique recommended by the manufacturer, mixed failure was predominant. Overall, in SEM analysis, no tags were observed in most of the specimens filled by the Modified Continuous Wave of Condensation Technique. When present, they were small and irregularly distributed. The specimens filled by the technique recommended by the manufacturer showed long and well-distributed tags, especially in the apical third (Friedman test, p<0.05). It was concluded that all systems promoted root canal changes after the biomechanical preparation, the obturation technique recommended by the manufacturer resulted in a higher volume of voids in the coronal third and BS of the Modified Continuous Wave of Condensation Technique group.
(From left to right) Prof. Dr. Antônio Miranda Cruz Filho, Prof. Dr. Jesus Djalma Pécora, Prof. Dr. Marco A. Versiani, Prof. Dr. Elizeu A. Pascon, Prof. Dr. Manoel D. Sousa Neto, Prof. Dr. Gustavo de Deus, Prof. Dr. Antônio Paulino Ribeiro Sobrinho